Ferns: Ornamental Plants

A spike is a type of plant with about 12,000 known species. As moss they also bear the xylem and phloem. They are also responsible to the roots, stems and leaves like other vascular plants but they do not have flowers and seeds. They produce spores. The largest group of ferns are known include ferns leptosporangiate. Common examples are ponytails, whisk ferns, fern marattioid, and ophioglossoid ferns.

The term pteridophyte also refers to ferns. A study of ferns and lycophytes pteridologist. The fossil record shows that they have evolved 360 million years ago in the Carboniferous period but the majority of the fern life about 145 million years old who grew up in the Cretaceous. They are not very important from a commercial point of view but is grown for ornament, food or remediating soil. Some herbs and have some special place in the cultural mythology, and art.

Ferns vascular plants from different lycophytes by having true leaves. They differ from gymnosperms and angiosperms less seeds and flowers but bear spores. Their life cycle shows alternation of generation means comprising a diploid sporophytic and a haploid gametophytic phase. A sporophytic phase produces haploid spores by meiosis. A spore grows by mitosis and produce a photosynthetic prothallus gametophyte to form. Gametophyte produces gametes by mitosis. A mobile, flagellated sperm fertilizes an egg cell is attached to the prothallus. Now a diploid zygote produces sporophytes by mitosis.

They choose to live in a variety of habitats from remote mountain top, to dry desert rock faces, to bodies of water or in open fields. In general, they prefer the four types of accommodation that is damp, shady forests, the cracks in rock faces, especially when sheltered from the full sun, acid wetlands including bogs and swamps, and tropical trees, where many species epiphytes.

Many known to form associations with mycorrhizal fungi. Spores are a rich source of lipid, protein and calories so consumed by some animals. Usually ran underground rhizomes, but in some cases it is ground creeping stolon or semi-wood tree trunks. Green leaves and is known as photosynthesis and leaves for horizontal adjustment. The leaves are three types. Tropophylls participate only in leaf photosynthesis like other vascular plants. Sporophylls produce spores and compared to the pine scale. They also photosynthesize like tropophylls. Brophophylls produce abnormally large number of spores. Underground roots and non-photosynthetic. They are similar to other fibrous vascular plants.

Prothallus is green, photosynthetic structure is generally a cell thick. It is heart-shaped stones measuring 3-10 mm long and 2-8 mm wide. It makes gametes to form antheridia and archegonia. Anteridia is a small spherical structures forming flagellated sperm. Archegonia is pumpkin-shaped structure that produces a single egg. Rhizoids is a root-like structure to obtain water and minerals. They are the anchor prothallus to the ground.

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